Tóm tắt: Viet Nam is known as a country in which many ethnic groups are living together. The Kinh ethnic group accounts for the largest proportion with approximately 86 per cent but additionally, another 53 ethnic groups as well as a substantial number of Vietnamese of foreign origin are living in Viet Nam. The Constitution of Viet Nam recognizes equity amongst all ethnic groups as a priority and as reflected in the documents issued by the 9th National Congress, the cause of ethnic groups and ethnic solidarity hold a long term strategic position in the revolutionary cause of the country. The Party and State have made substantial efforts to develop and enforce national policies which support cultural and ethnic diversity, with the aim of ensuring equal development, strengthening solidarity, promoting mutual support among ethnic groups, improving material and spiritual lives, reducing poverty, broadening people’s knowledge, and reducing socio-economic disparity between all 54 ethnic groups in Viet Nam.
The robust data from the 2009 Viet Nam Population and
Housing Census enables analysis and studies regarding
demographic as well as socio-economic patterns observed within different ethnic groups. The majority of the above mentioned indicators are generated from results derived from the sample survey of 15 per cent of the total population. The statistics of the 2009 census show that the size of the different ethnic groups varies widely. Among the ethnic groups, six consist of more than 1 million people; 14 ethnic groups have populations ranging from 100,000 to 1,000,000 people. All remaining ethnic groups have populations of less than 100,000 people, and several groups only comprise a few hundred people.
Although the sample size of the survey is taken from 15 per cent of the total population recorded in the 2009 census, the following analysis (with specific indicators) will focus on a selection of ethnic groups with the aim to ensure statistical reliability and representation. Indicators on age and sex structure will be analyzed for the 10 ethnic groups with the largest populations (from 400,000 people and over) including the Kinh (73,594,427 people), Tay (1,626,392 people), Thai (1,550,423 people), Muong (1,268,963 people), Khmer (1,260,640 people), Hoa (823,071 people), Nung (968,800 people), Mong (1,068,189 people), Dao (751,067 people) and Gia Rai (411,275 people). Other indicators will be analyzed for 6 ethnic groups that consist of one million or more people namely the Kinh, Tay, Thai, Muong, Khmer and Mong. Indicators related to education and technical training are analyzed for the ethnic group of Kinh and for the category “others”.